- 1 INTRODUCTION
- 2 OBJECTIVES
- 3 LITERATURE REVIEW
- 4 PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAM AND EXPLANATION
- 5 METHODOLOGY
- 6 COMPONENTS USED
- 7 PROBLEM FACED
- 8 RESULT AND ANALYSIS
- 9 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
- 10 CONCLUSION
- 11 PROJECT BY :
For the irrigation system atomization is very much essential because of the shortage of water in soil and lack of rain. Automatic irrigation system with solar tracking is the alternative solution for this type of situation. Agricultural system in world is always in need and depends on the presence of water in the soil. The continuous pulling out of soil water will reduce the moisture level of the soil. To overcome this issue intended irrigation system has to be followed. The better utilization of the available water will reduce the amount of wastage of water significantly. For this reason, automatic irrigation system is to be designed which will use the solar energy. The automatic irrigation with solar tracking system receives sun light through photo-voltaic cells. Therefore this system is not dependent on electric power. This automatic irrigation with solar tracking system uses solar energy to power the irrigation pump and the circuit comprises of sensors which will sense the soil for its dry or wet condition.
The main objective of this project is to rotate the solar panels according to the sun’s position automatically and to use the water in most efficient ways. By using some hardware and software components we can design dual axis solar trackers with irrigation systems. The hardware components involved are LDR (Light detecting resistor), servo motor, solar panel, moisture sensor and software component is micro controller. The LDRs are used to take sunlight as input from the sun. Four LDR are connected to the solar panel. These LDRs will trigger the motor to move the solar panel so that the solar panel will face the sun throughout the day. One of the most important aspects to maximize crop production is watering the crops but due to water scarcity and manual irrigation system the amount of water to be supplied could get higher or lower than the requirement. So this project includes an automatic irrigation system that involves a moisture sensor. The moisture sensor will sense the exact amount of moisture content in soil that will help in supplying the exact amount of water. This project is divided into two parts- Dual axis solar tracker and Irrigation System.
Dual Axis Solar Tracker:
It is used to capture solar energy and since it is dual axis so it can turn according to the sun’s position hence it absorbs maximum sunlight. Besides, it is estimated that the yield from solar panels can be increased by 30 to 60 percent by utilizing a tracking system instead of a stationary array . Up to 40% extra power can be produced per annum using a variable elevation solar tracker.
For a developing country like Nepal agriculture is the main occupation. Two-third of the population is dependent directly or indirectly on agriculture. It is a source of livelihood for many people. As it provides the highest contribution to national income so it has to get automated because manual irrigation systems are not that efficient. With an automated irrigation system water supply can be more accurate and precise.
Irrigation is the most important cultural practice and most labor intensive task in daily agriculture sector. Knowing when and how much to water is two important aspects of irrigation. To do this automatically, sensors and methods are available to determine when plants may need water. Automation involves mechanism of all the industrial activities so as to improve the speed of production, reduction of cost, effective use of resources.
With the growing requirement of electricity and concern for the environmental impact of fossil fuels, implementation of eco-friendly energy sources like solar power is rising. The efficiency of the single axis tracking system over that of the static panel is calculated to be 32.17% and the dual-axis tracking system over that of the static panel is calculated to be 81.68%.
Due to seepage in drains, wastage of water is caused there is imbalance in distribution of labour. After growth of crops, water reaches the basins in disproportionate quantity thereby causing wastage of water, creation of problem of water logging.
Before starting our project, we did research on different problems that are present in Agriculture land. During our research we found the struggle of farmers trying to figure out the solution to solve this problem for proper crops irrigation and energy source management. Thus we strike on the idea of developing a smart irrigation system based on solar power. This system would eradicate the problem faced by farmers to proper irrigation of farm land and increase in production of crops.
We, being the student of Electronics and Communication Engineering Faculty, we thought that it would be our responsibility to develop such system which would solve the problem faced by farmers.
- The main objective of this project is to provide two separate systems i.e. Dual axis solar tracker to take maximum input from sunlight and produce solar energy whereas irrigation systems to automatically optimize use of water in irrigation systems.
- To involves mechanism of all the activities so as to improve the speed of production, reduction of cost, effective use of water resources.
- The project has a GSM module to send a short message service (SMS) to farmer regarding irrigation of different plots and motor ON/OFF condition and status of water Tank.
Distributing the water to the required region is may be defined as irrigation system. The type of system is used will have an influence on the efficiency of the irrigation. Since ancient times, the life on earth is depends on the agriculture. The type of irrigation system used will be the tool that makes better agriculture. In the world, many types of irrigation systems are in practice, in one or the other way each irrigation systems have encountering many problems. Actually, there are few modern irrigation system which are in practice will mostly fail in one or the other way. The automation in the area of irrigation will play a vital job consequently, engineers battle to turn out with consolidated automated devices with the end goal to make complex systems that assistance humans in its exercises so the system should processes itself automatically with no human mediation.
Peter Gevorkian in his book “Alternative Energy Systems in Building Design, 2009” have written about solar tracking systems. In his book stated that tracking systems are support platforms that orient solar PV module assemblies by keeping track of the sun‟s movement from dawn to dusk, thus maximizing solar energy power-generation efficiency. Dual axis trackers, on the other hand can increase solar power production by 30-40 percent.
Since the sun moves across the sky throughout the day, in order to receive the best angle of exposure to sunlight for collection energy. A tracking mechanism is often incorporated into the solar arrays to keep the array pointed towards the sun. A solar tracker is a device onto which solar panels are fitted which tracks the motion of the sun across the sky ensuring that the maximum amount of sunlight strikes the panels throughout the day.
Double axis solar trackers have both a horizontal and a vertical axle and so can track the Sun’s apparent motion exactly anywhere in the World. This type of system is used to control astronomical telescopes, and so there is plenty of software available to automatically predict and track the motion of the sun across the sky. By tracking the sun, the efficiency of the solar panels can be increased by 30-40%.The dual axis tracking system is also used for concentrating a solar reflector toward the concentrator on heliostat systems.
Marie France Leroux et al  designed and developed the automated irrigation system with the feedback system to resolve the complexity and stability issues. The design has consumed less power and shows the reducing consumption of water. Mahesh et al  automized the irrigation for an agricultural system which utilizes the ARM7TDMI core, which is a 32-bit microprocessor, and GSM which serves as an controlling the irrigation on field and sends them to the receiver through coded signals. Their main objective of their work is to develop low cost time based microcontroller based irrigation system.
From the literature review it is clear that much work has been carried out on the development of automatic irrigation system. All the automatic irrigation systems consist of the temperature and humidity sensors which sense the condition of soil and acts accordingly. The signal send by the sensors will be processed by the microcontrollers. Thus the irrigation system is controlled by the microcontrollers. The whole system will use the electric power to operate the motor or pump to maintain the suitable conditions of soil. Irrigation to growing plants will take lot of time and resources. The resources may include water, power, human resources etc. Technology advances reduces the man power but some of the energy is still wasted. One more drawback of the available automated irrigation system is the use of electric power. In the rural areas there is a lack of availability of the electric power. With this constraint the use of automated irrigation system will not be possible in the rural areas. Technology is probably a solution to reduction of costs and prevents loss of resources. In this background, it intended to use the effective utilization of the available resources such as sunlight i.e., solar energy. In this work an attempt has been made to develop the solar tracker to operate the motor/pump. Solar tracker is the system which tracks the sunlight for solar panels.
PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAM AND EXPLANATION
The system discussed over here is based on natural and clean solar power. This is a whole automated system with self decision making capability. The decision making part will be carried out by the Microcontroller and GSM. The solar tracking system will help in capturing maximum sunlight from the sun. This energy will be stored in a DC Battery. The stored power will be used to drive the irrigation pump. Here the system will be a sensor based one where the pump will start only when there is the need of water to the land. The control of the irrigation pump will be made through a mobile phone from any remote location or auto decision using sensors. In this section some related works are connected to the monitoring system using GSM services.
DUAL AXIS SOLAR TRACKING
The dual axis solar tracking system is placed over the support which can move the solar panel according to our application. This support will move the plate by using two Servo motor. Servo motor is the DC motor which helps to rotate the solar panel. Over the solar plate, four LDR placed which helps to track the high intensity light according to which the solar panel starts moving. In this prototype, the pins of Arduino UNO i.e. A0, A1, A2, A3 are used which directly connected to LDR and resistors of 1KΩ. The LDR and resistors are connected in parallel with each other to provide the sufficient current to the electronic device. The Arduino UNO are instructed by the program having while loop statement as this solar panel can be continues to rotate. When the light of ultraviolet rays incident on the LDR, it acts as sensor which gives the input of high and low current value in 0 and 1 form. Consider, if LDR1 have high light intensity then it will sense the light intensity and give command to the Arduino. This Arduino will instruct to the motor to rotate over the side of LDR1 position where it is being placed. The same this process gets continues according to light effect. The input stage is designed with a voltage divider circuit so that it gives desired range of illumination for bright illumination conditions or when there is dim lighting. This made it possible to get readings when there is cloudy weather.
FLOWCHART OF DUAL AXIS TRACKER
GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM
Now moving to the second part of the project, the energy generated through the solar panel will be sent to a DC battery. The battery will store the energy for further applications. Now we are connecting a water pump to the battery so that the motor should run on the power generated by the solar panel. We are making the irrigation system an intelligent one. In this system the water supply will be an automated one that means the pump will supply the water only when the land needs it. And the water pump will be controlled by a cellular phone from any remote location. In order to achieve this task we are making use of a moisture sensor and a GSM Module or device.
The moisture sensor will be placed in the field, and it will be connected to the microcontroller. The moisture sensor will be continuously sending the amount of moisture to the microcontroller, where it will be compared with a predefined value. Now whenever the moisture level becomes less than the predefined level, the microcontroller will activate the GSM Module, which will send a message to the user, stating that the moisture level of the land has dropped. Now upon receiving the message the user can activate or switch on the water pump by just sending a SMS. After receiving the sms the GSM module will send the data to the microcontroller and the microcontroller will send a command to activate the water pump. After the motor gets started and starts supplying water to the field, simultaneously the moisture sensor will be sending the moisture level to the microcontroller. Since the field is getting water supply now the moisture level of the field will start increasing, this increase in the moisture will again be compared with a predefined moisture level by the microcontroller. Once if it reaches the maximum level again the microcontroller will activate the GSM module which will again send a message to the user about the increase in the moisture level. Now if the user wants he/she can switch off the water pump by sending a sms and they can manage to irrigate desired plot by sending an SMS. This is how the system will become an automated system also we are drawing maximum power through the sunlight.
FLOWCHART OF SMART IRRIGATION SYSTEM
Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator (CSTCE16M0V53-R0), a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button. Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino boards are able to read inputs – light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message – and turn it into an output – activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online.
Arduino is a prototype platform (open-source) based on an easy-to-use hardware and software. It consists of a circuit board, which can be programed (referred to as a microcontroller) and a ready-made software called Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment), which is used to write and upload the computer code to the physical board.
The key features are −
Arduino boards are able to read analog or digital input signals from different sensors and turn it into an output such as activating a motor, turning LED on/off, connect to the cloud and many other actions.
You can control your board functions by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board via Arduino IDE (referred to as uploading software).
Unlike most previous programmable circuit boards, Arduino does not need an extra piece of hardware (called a programmer) in order to load a new code onto the board. You can simply use a USB cable.
Additionally, the Arduino IDE uses a simplified version of C++, making it easier to learn to program.
Finally, Arduino provides a standard form factor that breaks the functions of the micro-controller into a more accessible package.
Arduinos have majority of these components in common. 1. Power USB(1) Arduino board can be powered by using the USB cable from your computer. All you need to do is connect the USB cable to the USB connection (1). 2. Power (Barrel Jack)(2) Arduino boards can be powered directly from the AC mains power supply by connecting it to the Barrel Jack (2). 3. Voltage Regulator(3) The function of the voltage regulator is to control the voltage given to the Arduino board and stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. 4. Crystal Oscillator(4) The crystal oscillator helps Arduino in dealing with time issues. How does Arduino calculate time? The answer is, by using the crystal oscillator. The number printed on top of the Arduino crystal is 16.000H9H. It tells us that the frequency is 16,000,000 Hertz or 16 MHz. 5. Arduino Reset(5,17) You can reset your Arduino board, i.e., start your program from the beginning. You can reset the UNO board in two ways. First, by using the reset button (17) on the board. Second, you can connect an external reset button to the Arduino pin labelled RESET (5) 6. Pins (3.3, 5, GND, Vin) (6,7,8,9) 3.3v (6)- Supply 3.3 output volt 5V (7) − Supply 5 output volt Most of the components used with Arduino board works fine with 3.3 volt and 5 volt. GND (8)(Ground) − There are several GND pins on the Arduino, any of which can be used to ground your circuit. Vin (9) − This pin also can be used to power the Arduino board from an external power source, like AC mains power supply. 7. Analog pins (10)
The Arduino UNO board has six analog input pins A0 through A5. These pins can read the signal from an analog sensor like the humidity sensor or temperature sensor and convert it into a digital value that can be read by the microprocessor. 8. Main microcontroller (11) Each Arduino board has its own microcontroller (11). You can assume it as the brain of your board. The main IC (integrated circuit) on the Arduino is slightly different from board to board. The microcontrollers are usually of the ATMEL Company. You must know what IC your board has before loading up a new program from the Arduino IDE. This information is available on the top of the IC. For more details about the IC construction and functions, you can refer to the data sheet. 9. ICSP pin (12) Mostly, ICSP (12) is an AVR, a tiny programming header for the Arduino consisting of MOSI, MISO, SCK, RESET, VCC, and GND. It is often referred to as an SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface), which could be considered as an “expansion” of the output. Actually, you are slaving the output device to the master of the SPI bus. 10. Power LED indicator (13) This LED should light up when you plug your Arduino into a power source to indicate that your board is powered up correctly. If this light does not turn on, then there is something wrong with the connection. 11. TX and RX LEDs (14) On your board, you will find two labels: TX (transmit) and RX (receive). They appear in two places on the Arduino UNO board. First, at the digital pins 0 and 1, to indicate the pins responsible for serial communication. Second, the TX and RX led (13).
The TX led flashes with different speed while sending the serial data. The speed of flashing depends on the baud rate used by the board. RX flashes during the receiving process. 12. Digital I/O (15) The Arduino UNO board has 14 digital I/O pins (15) (of which 6 provide PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) output. These pins can be configured to work as input digital pins to read logic values (0 or 1) or as digital output pins to drive different modules like LEDs, relays, etc. The pins labeled “~” can be used to generate PWM AREF (16)AREF stands for Analog Reference. It is sometimes, used to set an external reference voltage (between 0 and 5 Volts) as the upper limit for the analog input pins.
LDR (LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTANCE )
A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is also called a photoresistor or a cadmium sulfide (CdS) cell. It is also called a photoconductor. It is basically a photocell that works on the principle of photoconductivity. The passive component is basically a resistor whose resistance value decreases when the intensity of light decreases. This optoelectronic device is mostly used in light varying sensor circuit, and light and dark activated switching circuits. Some of its applications include camera light meters, street lights, clock radios, light beam alarms, reflective smoke alarms, and outdoor clocks.
The snake like track shown below is the Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) film which also passes through the sides. On the top and bottom are metal films which are connected to the terminal leads. It is designed in such a way as to provide maximum possible contact area with the two metal films. The structure is housed in a clear plastic or resin case, to provide free access to external light. As explained above, the main component for the construction of LDR is cadmium sulphide (CdS), which is used as the photoconductor and contains no or very few electrons when not illuminated. In the absence of light it is designed to have a high resistance in the range of megaohms. As soon as light falls on the sensor, the electrons are liberated and the conductivity of the material increases. When the light intensity exceeds a certain frequency, the photons absorbed by the semiconductor give band electrons the energy required to jump into the conduction band. This causes the free electrons or holes to conduct electricity and thus dropping the resistance dramatically (< 1 Kiloohm).
The MG90S Servo motor is an upgrade over the very common and inexpensive SG90 in that it adds metal gears, a little better torque and overall more robust construction.
These work well for basic servo experimentation and can be used in applications where small size is a virtue and that don‟t require a huge amount of torque, but they are still pretty strong. Servo motors can be commanded to go to a specific position and so are the usual go-to motor when accurate positioning is needed, such as for turning the front wheels on an RC model for steering or pivoting a sensor to look around on a robotic vehicle.
A solar panel, or photo-voltaic module, is an assembly of photo-voltaic cells mounted in a framework for installation. Solar panels use sunlight as a source of energy and generate direct current electricity. A collection of PV modules is called a PV Panel, and a system of Panels is an Array.
Photovoltaics directly convert solar energy into electricity. They work on the principle of the photovoltaic effect. When certain materials are exposed to light, they absorb photons and release free electrons. This phenomenon is called as the photoelectric effect. Photovoltaic effect is a method of producing direct current electricity based on the principle of the photoelectric effect.
Based on the principle of photovoltaic effect, solar cells or photovoltaic cells are made. They convert sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity. But, a single photovoltaic cell does not produce enough amount of electricity. Therefore, a number of photovoltaic cells are mounted on a supporting frame and are electrically connected to each other to form a photovoltaic module or solar panel.
A GSM modem or GSM module is a hardware device that uses GSM mobile telephone technology to provide a data link to a remote network. From the view of the mobile phone network, they are essentially identical to an ordinary mobile phone, including the need for a SIM to identify themselves to the network. The SIM900 is a complete Quad-band GSM/GPRS solution in a SMT module which can be embedded in the customer applications. Featuring an industry standard interface, the SIM900 delivers GSM/GPRS 850/900/1800/1900MHz performance for voice, SMS, Data, and Fax in a small form factor and with low power consumption. With a tiny configuration of 24mm x 24mm x 3 mm, SIM900 can fit almost all the space requirements in your M2M application, especially for slim and compact demand of design.
SIM900 is designed with a very powerful single-chip processor integrating AMR926EJ-S core
Quad – band GSM/GPRS module with a size of 24mmx24mmx3mm
SMT type suit for customer application
An embedded Powerful TCP/IP protocol stack
Based upon mature and field-proven platform, backed up by our support service, from definition to design and production.
16*2 LCD DISPLAY
An LCD is an electronic display module that uses liquid crystal to produce a visible image. The 16×2 LCD display is a very basic module commonly used in DIYs and circuits. The 16×2 translates o a display 16 characters per line in 2 such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in a 5×7 pixel matrix. These modules are preferred over seven segments and other multi segment LEDs. The reason being: LCDs are economical, easily programmable, have no limitation of displaying special & even common characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so on. A 16×2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5×7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers namely, command and data.
The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc. The data registers stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD.
An ultrasonic sensor is an electronic device that measures the distance of a target object by emitting ultrasonic sound waves, and converts the reflected sound into an electrical signal. Ultrasonic waves travel faster than the speed of audible sound (i.e. the sound that humans can hear). Ultrasonic sensors have two main components: the transmitter (which emits the sound using piezoelectric crystals) and the receiver (which encounters the sound after it has travelled to and from the target).
In order to calculate the distance between the sensor and the object, the sensor measures the time it takes between the emission of the sound by the transmitter to its contact with the receiver. The formula for this calculation is D = ½ T x C (where D is the distance, T is the time, and C is the speed of sound ~ 343 meters/second).
SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR
The soil moisture sensor is one kind of sensor used to gauge the volumetric content of water within the soil. As the straight gravimetric dimension of soil moisture needs eliminating, drying, as well as sample weighting. These sensors measure the volumetric water content not directly with the help of some other rules of soil like dielectric constant, electrical resistance, otherwise interaction with neutrons, and replacement of the moisture content.
Soil Moisture Sensor Pin Configuration: The FC-28 soil moisture sensor includes 4-pins
VCC pin is used for power
A0 pin is an analog output
D0 pin is a digital output
GND pin is a Ground
This sensor mainly utilizes capacitance to gauge the water content of the soil (dielectric permittivity). The working of this sensor can be done by inserting this sensor into the earth and the status of the water content in the soil can be reported in the form of a percent.
This sensor makes it perfect to execute experiments within science courses like environmental science, agricultural science, biology, soil science, botany, and horticulture.
The specification of this sensor includes the following.
The required voltage for working is 5V
The required current for working is <20mA
Type of interface is analog
The required working temperature of this sensor is 10°C~30°C
The applications of moisture sensor include the following.
Simple sensors for gardeners
This is a low cost, small size Submersible Arduino Pump Motor which can be operated from a 2.5 ~ 6V power supply. It can take up to 120 liters per hour with very low current consumption of 220mA. Just connect tube pipe to the motor outlet, submerge it in water and power it. Make sure that the water level is always higher than the motor. Dry run may damage the motor due to heating and it will also produce noise.
The Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a cross-platform application (for Windows, macOS, Linux) that is written in functions from C and C++. It is used to write and upload programs to Arduino compatible boards, but also, with the help of 3rd party cores, other vendor development boards.
It‟s the powerhouse that compiles and uploads your code to the RedBoard for use and where serial communication is operated from. At the top is the name of the Arduino „Sketch‟ along with the program version. A Sketch‟s default name is the date with a,b,c,… following depending on the amount you‟ve made that day. Underneath that is the Toolbar Ribbon that contains all the different commands you‟ll need when completing the projects in this Guide. The File tab contains commands like save, load, new and preferences. The Edit tab contains commands like copy, paste and font sizing. The Sketch tab contains verify, upload, add libraries. Tools contain the serial monitor, port and board selector and finally, the help tab contains general help commands. The Frequent Commands Ribbon is situated below the Toolbar Ribbon and, you guessed it, contains commands that are used more frequently than others. The Coding Area is where the programs to be uploaded are written with the Message Area and Debug Window displaying the current status of, and outcome of that process. Finally, there is the Connection area which displays the Port and Board connected to the computer.
During the progress of our project we encountered numerous varieties of problems that slowed our project. Some of them are mentioned as follows:
- Due to lack of proper equipment facilities we encountered problem to timely manage the modules and components.
- GSM module was not properly connecting to the GSM network of corresponding band.
- Many problems were faced during process of development of this project regarding fault connections, internal device errors, programming etc.
- The problems also raised while properly mounting the solar panel to the tracking frame.
RESULT AND ANALYSIS
Finally, the system was built with the expected output. Many problems were faced during process of development of this project regarding fault connections, internal device errors, programming. We finally devised the system that can really meet the objective of our project. The result revealed that the rotating solar panel captures maximum energy than a static Solar panel.
The smart irrigation can adjust for the daily weather, the plant type you are watering, the soil type, and slope, offer site-specific weather adjustments to adjust for the specific micro-climate on your property to reduce the risk of overwatering even further. Controllers can be adjusted from our phone and can help to identify farm land soil moisture status, monitor and control remotely according to user requirement and the final output of our project is as below:
This technology in future will enable the farmer to control & view farming direction from home through various methods like internet, mobile. The farm can be protected from animals, fire and any anonymous person entering the field. Insects can be detected and avoided. Growth of crops can be informed to the farmers.
This system is used to control home appliances tenuously and offer security when the owner is away from the place. This energy is also used for fencing for agriculture field, lighting, and auto cleaning of the solar panel and GSM technology is used to fetch the information about the motor running and which part of the field is irrigating and moisture level etc.
The automatic irrigation system with solar tracking is advantageous to the agriculturists when this system is actualized. At the point when the soil needs water is specified by the sensor by this automatic irrigation system is executed. When the crops require the water it can be automatically supplied by the system. The energy expected to the water pump and controlling system is given by sun powered board. Automatic irrigation system is utilized to optimize the use of water by diminishing wastage and decreases the human work. The system requires insignificant support and consideration since they are self-beginning. To additionally upgrade the everyday pumping rates tracking arrays can be executed. This system exhibits the attainability and utilization of utilizing sun oriented PV to give vitality to the directing necessities for sprinkler water system. Even though this system requires more investment but it solves more irrigation problem after long run of this system.
A fairly large solar panel tracker would cost several hundred dollars and will increase the energy produced by 30% to 50% depending on the season and location. The solar panels in the large arrays would cost in the thousands of dollars, so the addition of a solar tracker is very cost effective. Another benefit is the space saved rather than adding extra panels.
To conclude, this project turned out well and met the original requirements and functionality. Although there were many problems and more work on the mechanical side than originally expected, overall it was an enjoyable experience completing this project.
PROJECT BY :
Thank you for sharing our projects @electronicsworkshops.com