Poultry farming is the process of raising domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for purposing of farming meat for food. Poultry – mostly chickens – are farmed in great numbers. Farmers raise more than 50 billion chickens annually as a source of food, both for their meat and for their egg. As Nepal is an agricultural country, poultry farming is one of the important occupations of the peoples. Mainly local breeds are reared in Nepal but improved breeds like broiler and layers are also occupying a large area these days.

But Genetics and nutritional improvements in poultry husbandry have been extremely important to the efficiency of meat production; however, the full genetic potential of poultry can’t be reached unless the proper environment is maintained in the poultry house. The climate in poultry houses influences the wellbeing and health of birds. In most developed countries, modern poultry houses rely upon electronic controllers. Using controllers, it is possible to keep house temperatures within five different degrees of the desired temperature regardless of outside temperature. This makes it possible to keep the birds comfortable, so they are not diverting energy from growth to stay warm or cool.

The highest and lowest critical temperature depend very much on: Age, Body weight, housing system, Feeding level, Relative humidity, Air velocity and Health.

The recommended temperatures are:

First Day(32-34oC), 1st week decrease(30oC), 2nd week decrease(26oC),3rd week decrease(22oC), 4th week decrease(20oC).

This project consists of automation in poultry farm for monitoring and maintaining the inside temperature, feeding, monitoring water and poultry feed. The temperature sensor always monitors the inside temperature if temperature not at desired point then microcontroller controls the heater or cooling fan to set the temperature at desired condition. The humidity sensor monitors the amount of water vapor in air. When outside temperatures are low, relative humidity in the house is low, which often results in dry dust circulating in the air within the house.

If the relative humidity is too high, this may result in wet litter which directly effects on the health of poultry. The ideal relative humidity for poultry is 60-80%.Ventilation system in a poultry house consists of fans, air inlets, evaporative cooling system and controller. Houses are designed to deal with both cold and hot weather extremes. This project consists of automatic feeding and watering for automation we will be supplying food and water from the store to feeder and waterer. This process is continuously monitored and controlled.


The specified objectives of the project are listed below:

  • To monitor and maintain a healthy environment for poultry birds (chicken) in the farm.

To automize the poultry farm in aspect of feeding and watering


Different types of structural and technical development of poultry farm have been done to improve the chicken’s development from its hatch to fully grown one. Many monitoring and maintenance projects have been done before.

Smart poultry farm monitoring using IOT and wireless sensor network by Rupali B. Mahale,Dr. S.S. Sonavane(2016). Is a internet based system which uses RaspberryPI2, Arduino UNO and remote sensors. The system will replace traditional farm to intelligent farm that provides quicker and accurate information about farming. Smart monitoring of different parameters like temperature, light, humidity,gas etc. using wireless network help to make it smart. K. Sravanth Goud and Abraham Sudharsan in 2015 ,August published paper on Internet based Smart Poultry Farm. Integration of wireless sensors and mobile system network to remotely monitor poultry farm was used. The system earned person in charged about the temperature, humidity etc. by sending message to registered mobile number.

Chakchai So-In, SarayutPoolsanguan, Kanokmon Rujirakul1 developed overall system architecture of the hybrid model for mobile and wireless sensor network management systems in the smart poultry farm. One of the insights is to differentiate the electronic and mechanical parts of the farm establishment for mobility and flexibility purposes. Along with nutrition and animal heredity selection, other key factors such as temperature,humidity,light and population density management were present in system. Nur SyamimiAmir,AbdulMuizFathi Md. Abas, Nur Anis Azmi,Zulkifli Zainal Abidin and Amir AkraminShafie in 2016 published pare in ICCCE.The chicken farm monitoring system is proposed and developed based on wireless communication unit to transfer data using wireless module combined with sensors to enable to detect temperature, humidity, light and water level values. System carried out monitor and control using Arduino microcontroller.


The project we designed focuses on automatic feed distribution and environment monitoring in the poultry farm. But it can be enhanced further so the poultry farm be totally automated. It may include automatic cleaning technologies, regular visual monitoring of the farm and much more according to need. This project can also be implemented in  hatching technology as it monitors and maintains the temperature and humidity of the surrounding.  


The worthiness of the project is measured through feasibility analysis. Here are some factors to analyze feasibility for our project:

Operational Feasibility

Questions like: how will the smart poultry farm benefit farmers, what difficulties may arise, and what are the efficiency and user’s convenience to accept it, come under the feasibility analysis. This project will help poultry farmers to maintain and monitor the environment of farm and its favorable state for the

chickens. Besides, feeding and water distribution is automized so that the regular exposure to farm is reduced and is time saving.

Technical Feasibility

Technical feasibility is concerned with the availability of technology required and technical expertise on the field. The hardware requirement for this project are Arduino Mega, Temperature sensor (DHT11), PC Fan (12 V), PTC thermistor (12 V), water pump(8-12V), dc motors, motor driver,0.96-inch OLED display which are easily available in the market. The project requires the knowledge of basic Arduino programming and hardware knowledge.

Schedule Feasibility

The tentative time period for the completion of the project is about two months and it is possible to complete the project within that period of time.

Economic Feasibility

Economic analysis of the project is carried out by comparing estimated cost requirements to develop the product, integrate with the system, operation of system with benefits that is achieved by the project. Thus, the project is economically feasible.

5. Requirement analysis:-

Some of hardware requirements are as follows:

5.1.1 Arduino Mega

            Arduino Mega is a microcontroller board based on the ATMega1280.

            It consists of:

  • 54 digital input/out pins (of which 14 can be used as PWM output),
  • 16 analog inputs,
  • 4 hardware serial ports (UARTs),
  • 16 MHz crystal oscillator,
  • 256 KB flash memory,
  • 7-12 V input voltage, 5 V operating voltage
  Figure 5.1.1: Arduino Mega


5.1.2 DHT 22

The DHT 22 is a basic, ultra-low-cost digital temperature and humidity sensor. It uses a capacitive humidity sensor and a thermistor to measure the surrounding air, and spits out a digital signal on the data pin (no analog input pins needed). It’s fairly simple to use, but requires careful timing to grab data. The only real downside of this sensor is you can only get new data from it once every 2 seconds, so when using our library, sensor readings can be up to 2 seconds old.

Figure 5.1.2: DHT 22

5.1.3 L298N Motor driver module

The L298N driver module is H bridge DC motor driver IC. It can directly drive two 3-30V DC motor and provide a 5V output interface. Speed and direction of the motor can be controlled easily.

   Figure 5.1.3: L298N Motor driver module

5.1.4 Chicken nipple waterer

Chicken drinking nipples are a fairly recent innovation in the backyard poultry world although the commercial industry has been using them for several years.In fact, regular drinkers have not been used in the commercial poultry field for years.

One of the biggest benefits of drinking nipples is the fact that it keeps the water fresh and clean.

   Figure 5.1.4: Chicken nipple waterer


5.1.5 Toggle switch

A switch that uses a toggle joint with a spring to open or close an electric circuit as an attached lever is pushed through a small arc.

                                             Figure 5.1.5: Toggle switch

5.1.6 Ultrasonic module HC-SR04:

Ultrasonic ranging module HC-SR04 provides 2cm – 400cm non-contact measurement function, the ranging accuracy can reach to 3mm. It uses IO trigger for at least 10us high level signal. The Module automatically sends eight 40 kHz and detect whether there is a pulse signal back. If the signal is back, through high level, time of high output I/O duration is the time from sending ultrasonic to returning. Test distance= (high level time x velocity of sound (340m/s) /2.

Figure 5.1.6: Ultrasonic module

The software requirement is as follow:

5.2 Arduino 1.8.9

The open-source Arduino Software (IDE) makes it easy to write code and upload it to the board. It runs on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. The environment is written in Java and based on Processing and other open-source software. This software can be used with any Arduino board. This requires basic knowledge of C programming language.

   Figure 5.2: Arduino 1.8.9


                                                            Figure 6: Block diagram


Environment Monitoring

We use DHT22 sensor to measure temperature and humidity. We use switch case to check and control temperature of the poultry house like for 1st day the temperature of should be maintained in 32-34 degree Celsius, for 1st week 30 degree Celsius, for 2nd week 26 degree Celsius, for 3rd week 22 degree Celsius and for 4th week 20 degree Celsius. When DHT sensor start to give data to Arduino it will display data on TFT display module and proceed tasks according to case and condition. Using keypad, case will select, and Arduino will proceed task under given condition in case. For humidity of poultry house, we use another case in which humidity will display on TFT and proceed task to control humidity in 60-80 %. If humidity is not in range we make function to fan on. For temperature if temperature is high than given range then fan will on, and heater will off and if temperature is low than given range then heater will on, and fan will off.

Description of feeding and watering automation

In our system for water distribution we use nipple waterer for water delivery to chicken. In the main water reservoir, we used ultrasonic sensor to read its level. For feed distribution we used auger system. Auger system is spiral conveyor system. Auger helps in delivering feed from the container to the feeders. The auger is driven by 12V DC motor. In the feed container we use ultrasonic sensor to read the feed contained in it. In the last feeder we use IR sensor that checks if the feeder is full? If the feeder is not full the motor is turned on till it gets filled and then the motor is turned off. All the observation,data from ultrasonic sensor and IR sensor are shown in the TFT display.

6.2 Orthographic view of designed system



7.1 Flow chart for environment monitoring

7.2 Flow chart for feed and water distribution





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  1. This project is one I have been trying to find for a long while, I am a total novice programmer . I would be very interested in aquiring/buying the code and wiring diagram

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