A smart liquid measuring cylinder has been designed and constructed in order to get the desired volume of liquid from the storage. This preliminary study indicates that the liquid flow meter releases an electromagnetic wave to measure the volume of liquid per second. The device is programmed to switch off pump automatically if the desired amount of liquid is greater than the flowed liquid from the flow meter. Microcontroller is used to control the automatic operation of the measuring system. It is selected as the controller because it is easier to learn and the compact sizes make it easier to attach it with the system. The main advantage of the system is that we can get the exact volume of the liquid as needed. This can be mainly used for laboratory purpose, in large scale industries, house tank etc. It can minimize the water wastage and easy to manage with low cost.
WHAT’S OUR SYSTEM?
Our project takes over the task of manual filling of liquid in small scale industries, Laboratories. There by reducing the chances of human errors and wastage of any liquid due to spill or overflow.
The Microcontroller carries out all the control functions. The desired amount of liquid to be filled is first given by the user through 4×4 Keypad and the input value is displayed on the LCD 16×2 display. The entered amount of liquid should be from (0-9) Liters. The water is pulled out from the reservoir by the water pump and is passed through the Liquid Flow Sensor. The liquid pushes against the fins of the rotor, causing it to rotate. The shaft of the rotor is connected to a Hall Effect sensor. It is an arrangement of a current flowing coil and a magnet connected to the shaft of the rotor, thus a voltage/pulse is induced as this rotor rotates. In this flow meter, for every liter of liquid passing through it per minute, it outputs about 4.5 pulses. This is due to the changing magnetic field caused by the magnet attached to the rotor shaft as seen in the picture below. We measure the number of pulses using an Arduino and then calculate the flow rate. Finally, Relay switches off the connection from the water pump when the liquid flowed through the sensor is nearly equal to the given amount by the user.
In small industries bottle filling operation is done manually. The manual filling operation has many shortcomings like spilling of water while filling it in bottle, equal quantity of water may not be filled, delay due to natural activities of human etc. This problem faced by small industries compels to design this system. This proposed system is meant for small industries. It aims to eliminate the problem faced by small scale bottle filling system for smooth process and can reduce worker cost and operation cost.
- PROBLEM STATEMENT
Getting things done so far was a tedious job. The system does not outputs the exact amount of liquid as given by the user. As the Liquid Flow Sensor cannot differentiate between the flow of air and liquid. Also there is the leakage of liquid from some parts of the water flowing system
The Primary objective of our system is to develop a user friendly system as a microcontroller as a controller. The secondary objective is to design the system to minimize the water spill and to reduce the worker and operation cost.
To achieve our goals different components and the components are explained as below:-
- Arduino Mega
Arduino is an open-source platform used for building electronics projects. Arduino consists of both a physical programmable circuit board (more precisely a microcontroller) and a piece of software, or IDE that runs on a computer, used to write and upload computer code to the physical board. The Arduino Mega is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega1280. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 14 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Mega is compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila.
The 4*4 matrix keypad usually is used as input in a project. It has 16 keys in total, which means the same input values. The 4*4 Matrix Keypad Module is a matrix non- encoded keypad consisting of 16 Y2 as labeled beside control the rows, when X1-X4, the columns.
To establish a good communication between human world and machine world, display units play an important role. And so they are an important part of embedded systems. Display units – big or small, work on the same basic principle. Besides complex display units like graphic displays and 3D displays, one must know working with simple displays like 16×1 and 16×2 units. The 16×1 display unit will have 16 characters and are in one line. The 16×2 LCD will have 32 characters in total 16in 1st line and another 16 in 2nd line. Here one must understand that in each character there are 5×10=50 pixels so to display one character all 50 pixels must work together. But we need not to worry about that because there is another controller (HD44780) in the display unit which does the job of controlling the pixel.
Relays are the switches that open and close circuits electromechanically or electronically. Relays control one electrical circuit by opening and closing contacts in another circuit. As relay diagrams show, when a relay contact is normally open (NO), there is an open contact when the relay is not energized.
A useful property of relays is that the circuit powering the coil is completely separate from the circuit switched on by the relay. For this reason relays are used where a safe low-voltage circuit controls a high-voltage circuit.
A potentiometer is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an adjustable divider. If only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper, it acts as a variableresistor or rheostat.
The measuring instrument called a potentiometer is essentially a voltage divider used for measuring electric potential (voltage); the component is an implementation of the same principle, hence its name.
Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment. It is also called as thumb pot, slide pot or trim pot. Here we have used potentiometer to control the contrast of 16 x 2 LCD.
6.6. Water Pump
A centrifugal water pump uses a rotating impeller to move water into the pump and pressurize the discharge flow. All liquids can be pumped using centrifugal water pumps, even liquid with low viscosity. These pumps work great with thin liquids and high flow rates. The pump is powered by an electric motor that drives an impeller, or centrifugal pump. The impeller moves water, called drive water, from the well through a narrow orifice, or jet, mounted in the housing in front of the impeller. Its function is to slow down the water and increase the pressure.
6.7. Liquid Flow Sensor
Measure liquid/water flow for your solar, computer cooling, or gardening project using this handy basic flow meter. This sensor sit in line with your water line, and uses a pinwheel sensor to measure how much liquid has moved through it. The pinwheel has a little magnet attached, and there’s a Hall Effect magnetic sensor on the other side of the plastic tube that can measure how many spins the pinwheel has made through the plastic wall. This method allows the sensor to stay safe and dry. The sensor comes with three wires: red (5-24VDC power), black (ground) and yellow (Hall Effect pulse output). By counting the pulses from the output of the sensor, you can easily track fluid movement.
Different tools are used here to describe the complete proposal. Arduino based programming (Arduino IDE alike C++), Fritzingsimulation.
7.2 Programming Tools and Language.
Arduino Programming in Arduino IDE, done in Notepad, Simulation in Fritzing™ and flowchart is designed in Draw™.io.
- COMPONENT LIST
|S.N.||Particulars||Quantity||Cost in Rs.|
|4.||4 x4 Keypad||1||200|
|8.||12 v battery||2||200|
This was created as fully automatic liquid filling system. The system meets the demand of high-speed production using the least mechanism requirements.
The system has proved to work effectively avoiding unnecessary spill or wastage of liquids. This was to develop a liquid filling and capping system based on certain specifications. This was successfully implemented. A lot of additional features like user defined volume specification etc. Were added in the different stages in our work and the desired results were obtained. More features can be added to this system as follows: depending on the size, shape and weight of the containers, filling operations can be implemented.
This PROJECT IS DONE BY: