Background and objective

 Background  :

                              Paralysis is the inability to move muscles on your own and with purpose. It can be temporary or permanent. The most common causes are stroke, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis. Paralysis can be a complete loss of movement known as a significant weakness called paresis. Paralysis is most often caused by damage in the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Paralysis is caused by injury or disease affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) which means that the nerve signals sent to the muscles is interrupted. Even though, there are innovative approaches for curing or treating paralysis patients, but the aim of treatment is to help a person adapt to life with paralysis by making them as independent as possible. Where we see a problem with these types of devices that are being developed is that they are very large and expensive machines. They seem to be only available in hospitals and not able to be used at the patient’s home or at their convenience. Our goal is to make a device that will be able to retrain a patient’s motion but have they are able to use the device themselves and have it be cheap enough for them to afford without much debt.    


                     Because of expanding work cost, medical institutions would constrain to decrease nursing staff for patients. Our project aims to develop new innovation for the use of basic nursing care. In this project, we introduce a secure IOT Based paralyzed patient health care monitoring and facilitation system. It helps us to take care of patient health care without nurse.


Hardware Description

2.1 Arduino:

                      Arduino is an open source computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that designs and manufacture single-board Microcontrollers and microcontroller kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the physical world.

                         Arduino board designs use a variety of  microprocessors and controls. The boards are equipped with  sets of digital analog input/output (I/O) pins that may be interfaced  to various expansion boards or Breadboards (shields) and other circuits. The board features serial communications interfaces, including  Universal_Srerial Bus(USB) on some models, which are also used for loading programs from personal computers. The microcontrollers are typically programmed using a dialect of features from the programming languages C and C++. In addition to using  tradition compiler tool  chains,  the Arduino project   provides an intergrated  development  environment (IDE) based on Processing language project.

Fig2.1: Arduino


2.2 Wifi Module:

                             The ESP8266 is the name of a micro controller designed by Espressif Systems. The ESP8266 itself is a self-contained WiFi networking solution offering as a bridge from existing micro controller to WiFi and is also capable of running self-contained applications. This module comes with a built in USB connector and a rich assortment of pin-outs. With a micro USB cable, you can connect NodeMCU devkit to your laptop and flash it without any trouble, just like  Arduino.  It is also immediately breadboard friendly. The ESP8266 Wifi module is a self contained SOC with integrated TCP/IP protocol stack that can give any microcontroller access to your WiFi network. The ESP8266 is capable of either hosting an application or offloading all Wi-Fi networking functions from another application processor.

Fig2.2: wifi module

2.3 LM35 Temperature :

                                    Temperature is the most-measured process variable in mechanical computerization. Usually, a temperature  sensor is utilized to change over temperature incentive to an electrical esteem. Temperature sensor are the way to peruse temperature effectively and to control to temperature in industrials applications. A large distinction can be made between temperature sensor types. Sensor   differ a lot in properties such as contact-way, temperature range, calibrating method and sensing element. The temperature sensors contain a sensing element enclosed in housings of plastic or metal. With the help of conditioning circuits, the sensor will reflect the change of environmental temperature.

Fig 2.3: Temperature sensor

2.4 RF module

                            The RF module, as the name suggests, operates at Radio Frequency. The corresponding frequency range varies between 30 kHz & 300 GHz. In this RF system, the digital data is represented as variations in the amplitude of carrier wave. This kind of modulation is known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). Transmission through RF is better than IR (infrared) because of many reasons. Firstly, signals through RF can travel through larger distances making it suitable for long range applications. Also, while IR mostly operates in line-of-sight mode, RF signals can travel even when there is an obstruction between transmitter & receiver. Next, RF transmission is more strong and reliable than IR transmission. RF communication uses a specific frequency unlike IR signals which are affected by other IR emitting sources. This RF module comprises of an RF Transmitter and an RF Receiver. The transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operates at a frequency of 434 MHz. An RF transmitter receives serial data and transmits it wirelessly through RF through its antenna connected at pin4. The transmission occurs at the rate of 1Kbps – 10Kbps.The transmitted data is received by an RF receiver operating at the same frequency as that of the transmitter. The RF module is often used along with a pair of encoder/decoder. The encoder is used for encoding parallel data for transmission feed while reception is decoded by a decoder. HT12E-HT12D, HT640-HT648, etc. are some commonly used encoder/decoder pair ICs.

Fig 2.4: RF module

2.5 Heart rate sensor:

                                    Monitoring heart rate is very important for a patients as it determines the condition of the heart (just heart rate). There are many ways to measure heart rate and the most precise one is using an Electrocardiography. But the more easy way to monitor the heart rate is to use a Heartbeat Sensor. It comes in different shapes and sizes and allows an instant way to measure the heartbeat. Heartbeat Sensors are available in Wrist Watches (Smart Watches), Smart Phones, chest straps, etc. The heartbeat is measured in beats per minute or BPM, which indicates the number of times the heart is contracting or expanding in a minute. The principle behind the working of the Heartbeat Sensor is Photoplethysmograph. According to this principle, the changes in the volume of blood in an organ is measured by the changes in the intensity of the light passing through that organ. Usually, the source of light in a heartbeat sensor would be an IR LED and the detector would be any Photo Detector like a Photo Diode, an LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) or a Photo Transistor.

Fig2.5: Heart rate sensor

2.6 Gyroscope  and  Accelerometer  sensor  :                                                

                                           Gyro sensors, also known as angular rate sensors or angular velocity sensors are devices that sense angular velocity.  In simple terms, angular velocity is the change in rotational angle per unit of time. Angular velocity is generally expressed in deg/s (degrees per second).An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration  (or rate of change of velocity) of a body in its own instantaneous rest frame, is not the same as coordinate acceleration, being the acceleration in a fixed coordinate system. The GY-521 module is a breakout board for the MPU-6050 MEMS (Micro electromechanical systems) that features a 3-axis gyroscope, a 3-axis accelerometer, a digital motion processor (DMP), and a temperature sensor. The digital motion processor can be used to process complex algorithms directly on the board. Usually, the DMP processes algorithms that turn the raw values from the sensors into stable position data. The sensor values are retrieved by using the I2C serial data bus, which requires only two wires (SCL and SDA).


  • Accelerometer ranges: ±2, ±4, ±8, ±16g
  • Gyroscope ranges: ± 250, 500, 1000, 2000 °/s
  • Voltage range: 3.3V – 5V (the module include a low drop-out voltage regulator)
Fig 2.6: Gyroscope  and    Accelerometer  sensor

2.7 LCD Display:

                          LCD(liquid crystal display) is the technology used for display in notebook and other smaller computers. Like light-emitting diode  diode (LED) and gas-plasma technologies, LCD’s allow displays to be much thinner than LED and gas-display displays because they work on the principle of blocking light rather than emitting it. An LCD is made with either passive matrix or an active matrix display display grid. The active matrix LCD is also known as a thin film transistor (TFT) display. The passive matrix LCD has a grid of conductors with pixels located at each intersection in the grid. A current is sent across two conductors on the grid to control the light for any pixel. An active matrix has a transistor located at each pixel intersection, requiring less current to a control the luminance of a pixel. For this reason, the current in an active matrix display can be switched on and off mare frequently, improving the screen refresh time (your mouse will aooear to move more smoothly across the screen.

Fig 2.7:LCD Display

2.8 Potentiometer:

                     Potentiometers are variable resistors. Potentiometers are resistors where the resistance can be changed using a knob or a slider. Potentiometers are used to control many things, including how bright or dim the lights in your house are and the volume controls on your television. Some are used in voltage dividers. The idea of a device that could be used to control the amount of electricity going to a component was thought by many people, but the carbon potentiometer we commonly use today was invented by Thomas Edison in 1872 at the age of 25. He called this device a “coiled resistance wire rheostat”. His patent for this device was issued in 1872. Carbon resistors, as said above, are the most commonly used resistors today. They are used in radios to control the volume, in televisions to control picture brightness, contrast, and colour response. A potentiometer is a passive electronic component. Potentiometers work by varying the position of a sliding contact across a uniform resistance. In a potentiometer, the entire input voltage is applied across the whole length of the resistor, and the output voltage is the voltage drop between the fixed and sliding

Fig 2.8: Potentiometer

2.9  Jumper Wire :

                                  Jumper wires are simply wires that have connector pins at each end, allowing them to be used to connect two points to each other without soldering. Jumper wires are typically used with breadboards and other prototyping tools in order to make it easy to change a circuit as needed. Jumper wires typically come in three versions: male-to-male, male-to-female and female-to-female. The difference between each is in the end point of the wire. Male ends have a pin protruding and can plug into things, while female ends do not and are used to plug things into. Male-to-male jumper wires are the most common and what you likely will use most often. When connecting two ports on a breadboard, a male-to-male wire.

Fig 2.9: Jumper wire

     2.10 Buzzer :

                            A buzzer or beeper is an audio signalling device, which can be mechanical, electro mechanical or piezoelectric. Typical use of buzzer and beepers include alarm devices, time and confirmation of user input, such as mouse click or key stroke. We have used piezoelectric buzzer at our project as an alert for LPG and fire detection. A piezoelectric element may be driven by an oscillating electronic circuit or other audio signal source, driven with an piezoelectric audio amplifier. Buzzer alert us by beeping continuously whenever fire is detected keeps on beeping until the fire goes out and a by beeping in pluse mode for it alerts us on LPG leakage. The diagram of piezoelectric buzzer is given below:       

Fig 2.10: Buzzer

                                       CHAPTER -3

Software Descriptioin :

                                    Software refers to the things which can’t be touch and seen.  Arduino UNO is needed to be programmed at first so that it could perform the task as instructed. So we first download the Arduino Ide and install it in our computer. After then we connect the board to computer by using USB serial converter. Open the Arduino application and we should select the port of USB and after connection if it blinks LED then it is installed successfully and is ready for programming. By looking at hardware configuration and steps we have to program the Arduino . Its programming language is simple and clear and it is expanded from of C++ language. So it is more users friendly and easy for programming. Due to its specified pin programming has become easier too. After that before connecting out Wi-FI module to our microcontroller it is needed to get flashed first. So download and we connect our Wi-Fi module USB <-> Serial Board and started flashing the firmware. After flashing successfully it will be able run our Wi-Fi module. Then we need blynk libraries for programming and while programming it we have to insert our internet connected Wi-Fi router SSID and Password so that Wi-Fi module can connect to server which we want use for IOT. We need to install an application named Blynk at our smartphone. After installing Blynk app we have to open it and log in with our E-mail ID. After logging in we create a new project and we should select the board and hardware model and write the project name and after creating it we should instantly get an Auth token at our E-mail ID. Auth token is a unique identifier which is needed to connect the hardware to our smartphone. We should have to copy that Auth token and upload to Wi-Fi module connected with Arduino.

3.1 Arduinio Ide :

  •  Arduino IDE is an open source software that is mainly used for writing and compiling the code into the Arduino Module.
  • It is an official Arduino software, making code compilation too easy that even a common person with no prior technical knowledge can get their feet wet with the learning process.
  • It is easily available for operating systems like MAC, Windows, Linux and runs on the Java Platform that comes with inbuilt functions and commands that play a vital role for debugging, editing and compiling the code in the environment.
  • A range of Arduino modules available including Arduino Uno, Arduino Mega, Arduino  Leonardo, Arduino Micro and many more.
  • Each of them contains a microcontroller on the board that is actually programmed and accepts the information in the form of code.
  • The main code, also known as a sketch, created on the IDE platform will ultimately generate a Hex File which is then transferred and uploaded in the controller on the board.
  • The IDE environment mainly contains two basic parts: Editor and Compiler where former is used for writing the required code and later is used for compiling and uploading the code into the given Arduino Module.
  •  This environment supports both C and C++ languages.

3.2 Blynk :

                   Blynk is a platform with iso and android apps to control Arduino, Raspberry pi and the likes over the internet. It’s digital dashboard where you can built a graphic interface for your project by simply dragging and dropping widgets.Blink is not tide to specific board or shield.insted, it’s supporting hardware of your choice. Whatever your aurdino or raspberry pi is linked to the internet over wi-fi, Ethernet or this new ESP8266 cheap, blink will get you on line and ready for the internet of your things. It can control hardware remotely, it can display sensors data, it can store data , visualize it and can do many other things too. It is the one of the most popular mobile app for the iot which work with anythings : ESP8266, Aurdino,Raspberry Pi, Sparkfun and many others. 

 There are three major components  in the platform:

  • Blynk App- allows to you create amazing interfaces for your projects using     various widget we provide.
  • Blynk Server – responsible for all the communication between the smartphone  and hardware. You can use our Blynk Cloud or run your private  Blynk server locally. It’s open-source,could easily handle thousands of devices and can even be launched on a Raspberry Pi.
  • Blynk Libaries- for all the popular hardware platforms –

Enable communication with the server and process all the incoming and outcoming a=commands.

                         CHAPTER -4

Block Diagram :

 Fig 4.1.1: block diagram of RF Transmitter


Arduino UNO:

Arduino/Genuino Uno is a microcontroller board in view of the ATmega328P. It has 14advanced information/yield pins (of which 6 can be utilized as PWM yields), 6 simple datasources, a 16 MHz quartz precious stone, a USB association, a power jack, an ICSP headerand a reset catch. It contains everything expected to bolster the microcontroller; just associateit to a PC with a USB link or power it with an AC-to-DC connector or battery to begin. Youcan tinker with your UNO without agonizing excessively over accomplishing somethingincorrectly, most dire outcome imaginable you can trade the chip for a couple of dollars andbegin once again once more.

Power Supply:

4.1.2 RF Receiver:

Fig 4.1.2: RF Receiver



5.1 Cricuit diagram:


                             Arduino ( open source electronic prototype platform) is the main core of own project. It performs all the arithmetic and logical operation and control all the peripheral device connected to it according to the code written. Our project main aim is to monitor the paralyzed patient health. For that purpose we used temperature sensor and heart beat sensor to measure the body temperature and BPM respectively. Heart beat sensor or pulse sensor works on the principle of photo phlethhysmography. It measure the change of volume of blood through any organ of the body which cause a change in the intensity of light through that organ. Any pulse sensor has two transmitter and receiver section. In the transmission section. The high intensity of light ray is emitter light is emitter to the organ that emitter light is reflected back from the blood and that reflected light signalis detected by photodiode of the sensor. The directly proportional to the volume of the blood. According to related signal BPM is calibrated.


Where f = Pulse frequency.

                       Pulse sensor is connected to pin A2 to give the output signal to the arduino. To measure the temperature of the patient here we used a LM35 IC  which is actually a temperature sensor when their is 1°c charges in the temperature their will be charge 10mv in the output. This is very accurate and to measure temperature in degree celcius.

                       Temperature sensor is connected to pin A0 to give the change in the voltage in the sensor.

The use of accelerometer sensor patient is able to interact with other people by regarding the specific gesture. To communication with the world Gyro sensor is connected to SDA and SCA  pin of arduino that is (A4SA5). It uses 12p communication mode.

                 To display the message according  the gesture and the health condition of the patient here we patient here we use 10*2 LCD display 16 bit data is to be displayed is send through the pin(4,5,6,7) from the arduino. Further to notify the patients health to their family member and other loved people we have send the data into internet server. For these purpose we have used ESP 01 Wi-Fi module which BLYNK server where outer family member, doctors can easily access the patient health condition in their smartphone from any part of the world.



#define BLYNK_PRINT Serial
#include <ESP8266_Lib.h>
#include <BlynkSimpleShieldEsp8266.h>   
#include <PulseSensorPlayground.h>                                      
PulseSensorPlayground pulseSensor; 
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
SoftwareSerial EspSerial(2, 3); // RX, TX 

char auth[] = "uvqSe9JhxWIH6RMtSGrmN8acWzDslmG0";
char ssid[] = "MANMOHAN";
char pass[] = "ELECTRONICS";

const int PulseWire = A1;       
const int LED13 = 13;          
int Threshold = 550;
// Your ESP8266 baud rate:
#define ESP8266_BAUD 115200  
ESP8266 wifi(&EspSerial);

BlynkTimer timer;

void sendSensor()
  int temp=(analogRead(A0)*0.48828125);

 int myBPM = pulseSensor.getBeatsPerMinute(); 

 if (pulseSensor.sawStartOfBeat()) {             
 Serial.println("?  A HeartBeat Happened ! "); 
  Blynk.virtualWrite(V6, temp);

void setup()


  Blynk.begin(auth, wifi, ssid, pass);
  timer.setInterval(1000L, sendSensor);

void loop()





#include <PulseSensorPlayground.h>
#include <LiquidCrystal.h>
LiquidCrystal lcd(12, 11, 5, 4, 3, 2);  
const int MPU=0x68; 
int16_t AcX,AcY,AcZ;

const int PulseWire = A3;       
const int LED13 = 13;          
int Threshold = 550; 
int temp,gyro; 
int tempout=3,bpmout=9,gyroout=10;
String message;       
PulseSensorPlayground pulseSensor;  

void setup() {  
  lcd.begin(16, 2);

   if (pulseSensor.begin()) {
 Serial.println("We created a pulseSensor Object !");
    lcd.print("SYSTEM IS READY.");
    for(int i=0;i<=15;i++)

void loop() {
 int myBPM = pulseSensor.getBeatsPerMinute();  

if (pulseSensor.sawStartOfBeat()) {           
 Serial.println("?  A HeartBeat Happened ! "); 
 Serial.print("BPM: ");                         

  int x=map(AcX,-20000,20000,-20,20);
  int y=map(AcY,-20000,20000,-20,20);
  int z=map(AcZ,-20000,20000,-20,20);


if((y>5) && (y<=15))
 message = "I am Hungry";
 else if((y <-5) && (y>=-15))
 message = "I am Thirsty";
   else if((x>5) && (x<=15))
  message="I want to go Washroom";
   else if((x <-5) && (x>=-15))
 message = "I wanted to talk with someone";

       message = "ELECTRONICS";


                               CHAPTER -7


Advantages :

  • Disable people can easily communicate with other people.
  • Disable people can ask for help if they need.
  • They can directly contact to the doctor or nurse if some health related problem is occurred.
  • Secured and reliable communication.


  • Internet is required for communicating the people.
  • Fully paralyzed people cannot use because they cannot produce gesture.
  • High cost.



This project can be used in following:

  • Hospital for communicating with doctors and nurses.
  • Home or office for communicating with other people.
  • For asking help to other.

Project Overview




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  1. hey, can you send me circuit diagram in your blog there in an section in index of diagram but there is no diagram or circuit. Only source code is there. So, can please help me out.

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