1.1. Introduction

The Attendance – an unavoidable part of any class or institute! Marking attendance is quite important for a number of reasons. As significant as attendance is, it consumes a lot of one’s time and doesn’t contribute toward student/employee progress. The crucial time can be saved with digital/automated attendance system, which is an automated solution to not only mark attendance but also to find out meaningful patterns in order to monitor student/employee performance around key metrics.

No paperwork, no manual attendance, and no wastage of time lead to reduced hassle and enables the already overburdened and wastage of productive time. Since the attendance is automated, you can be sure that the data is accurate and error-free. Once the attendance is marked, the captured data gets stored in attendance management system, from where anyone having the rights can view the attendance details. This feature is especially useful while locating a particular attendee or while analyzing trends. 

Attendance automation requires little to no effort from the teacher/employer, which means a reduced workload. All that the people have to do is punch-in or flash the ID card in front of the device, in case of biometric or RFID attendance, whereas attendance marked with an app merely requires 60 seconds. The data stored in the ERP is protected by multiple layers of security along with strong encryption, making it immune to a data security breach and potential threats. The capability to analyze attendee performance using attendance data is, perhaps, the most significant reason why one needs an attendance monitoring system.

1.2. Problem Definition

Today, attendance management is an essential requirement for every institute. Automation of the attendance system frees the authorities from mundane tasks and saves precious time that can be invested in other beneficial tasks. Using a student attendance management module eliminates the need for manual attendance which is a long and tedious process.

This system developed will reduce the manual work and avoid redundant data. By maintaining the attendance manually, then efficient reports cannot be generated. This system can generate efficient, consolidate and secure attendance. Manual attendance are tiresome, inefficient and basically a tough task for both attendee and management system. So, for further advancement and whole new benefits, this system can be used. Mainly, this system is made to eliminate or reduce as much as possible the hardship of the existing system and avoidance of errors in data regulation. No formal knowledge is to be required for user to use this attendance system, also while the whole system is completely protected.

1.3. Objective

The general objective of this project is to contribute to the development of attendance management system. The general objective can be broken down into the following:

  1. To make user interface easy and to make data storing and recovery fast and secured.
  2. To tailor the functionality of this framework so that it is suitable for end users to know attendance pattern in any institute.
  3. To use less paperwork and avoid errors which can be occur while marking the attendance.
  4. To store up maximum records and provide flexibility in attendance system.
  5. To analyze the individual attendance and group trends in employee attendance system.  


Several approaches have been taken for the attendance system being used and to select the optimum path for use of RFID. Following are some of the methods undertaken:

2.1. Wireless Data Transmission

In wireless transmission media, data is transmitted in the form of electromagnetic waves that do not require any physical conductors for transmission. The waves are broadcast through free space and any device who has permission to connect can receive them. Wireless transmission is a form of unguided media. Wireless communication involves no physical link established between two or more devices, communicating wirelessly. Wireless signals are spread over in the air and are received and interpreted by appropriate antennas.

When an antenna is attached to electrical circuit of a computer or wireless device, it converts the digital data into wireless signals and spread all over within its frequency range. The receptor on the other end receives these signals and converts them back to digital data.

2.2 Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic radiation, is a form of energy emitted by moving charged particles. As it travels through space it behaves like a wave, and has an oscillating electric field component and an oscillating magnetic field. These waves oscillate perpendicularly to and in phase with one another. Electromagnetic waves are ubiquitous in nature (i.e., light) and used in modern technology—AM and FM radio, cordless and cellular phones, garage door openers, wireless networks, radar, microwave ovens, etc. These and many more such devices use electromagnetic waves to transmit data and signals.

The creation of all electromagnetic waves begins with a charged particle. All the above sources of electromagnetic waves use the simple principle of moving charge, which can be easily modeled. EM waves are composed of oscillating magnetic and electric fields in simpler words. This is the principle used behind transfer of data on RFID tags and RFID reader.

2.3 RFID Technology

Attendance Monitoring and Measurement System using Active RFID Technology includes Active RFID tag, Wireless Router, Wireless Coordinator and Monitoring software. Devices collects data from Active RFID tags, these devices are mounted at accessible position. Microcontroller collects all data through reader, reply to corresponding data signal and store the data in in-built EEPROM. So, the involvement of various communication devices makes implementation easier.

2.4 Tags

A tag consists of a microchip that stores a unique sequence identifier that is useful in identifying objects individually. The sequence is a numeric serial, which is stored in the RFID memory. The microchip includes minute circuitry and an embedded silicon chip. The tag memory can be permanent or re-writable, which can be re-programmed electronically by the reader multiple times. Tags are designed specific to its applications and environment. Tags are available in various shapes and sizes. Tags that are initiated by the reader are known as Passive tags, whilst those that do not require external initiation are called Active tags. A Semi-Passive tag exists, which has the features of both Active and Passive tags . Each tag type has its distinct characteristics.

2.5 Reader

The reader is the most fundamental part of the RFID system. It reads raw data from the tag and transmits it to the device ware for further processing. The reader attempts to interrogate the tags at varying frequencies. The reader communicates by transmitting a beam of impulses, which encapsulate commands to the tag and listens for the tag’s response. The reader also contains built in anti-collision processes, which allows the reader to read multiple tags simultaneously. The reader is connected to the computer for data processing via a USB cable or over a wireless connection

3. METHODOLOGY          

3.1 Working of RFID

RFID (radio frequency identification) is one type of electronic device includes a small antenna and a chip. This device is used to transmit the information like persons, animals, books or any stuff between the reader and RFID tag using radio frequency electromagnetic fields. It is capable of carrying 2k bytes of data. In the RFID system, the reader sends signal to the tag using an antenna. The tag receives this information and resends this information along with the information in its memory. The reader receives this signal and transmits to the processor for further processing.

RFID tag consists of a silicon microchip attached to a small antenna and mounted on a substrate and encapsulated in different materials like plastic or glass veil and with an adhesive on the back side to be attached to objects. RFID reader consists of a scanner with antennas to transmit and receive signals and is responsible for communication with the tag and receives the information from the tag.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-22.png
FIgure 3.1 Working of RFID

3.2 Operation of a full-fledged system

  • On LCD display, it displays the basic figures such as time, date and menu items.
  • One needs to place the RFID tag near the reader.
  • Reader then reads the data in the tag and transmits to the controller.
  • Microcontroller compares the tag with the database. If the tag is matches LCD displays “WELCOME” and takes your attendance along a time stamp.
  • If the same card is placed nearby then the attendance is marked as exit along exit message as “SEE YOU”.
  • Now when another card which is not present in the database is placed and check for authentication, then LCD displays “Unauthorized” and will never take the attendance.
  • Push Button 1 allows one to view attendance, Push Button 2 allows to view all attendance and Push Button 3 allows to clear all the records but requires admin ID.
  • In this way, we can use the implemented circuit.

3.3 Features 

  • Read and write data without direct contact.
  • Highly reliable, secure and flexible configuration can be made with use of RFID.
  • No line of sight required for working of RFID, uses electromagnetic and electric wave transmission.
  • Multiple RF tags can be accessed simultaneously.
  • Unique identity per tags and automatic identification.

3.4 System Flow-Chart

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-23.png
Figure 3.4 System Flow-Chart


4.1. System Block Diagram

We have various components adjoined together in forming of a system, likewise we have used various electronics component for making an digital attendance system. Using the Arduino as a microcontroller, it acquires power from power supply, similarly adjoined are RFID card reader that are used as an information receiver, RTC module for timings, LCD display for visual output and a in-built EEPROM is used as memory unit for storage of various data and inputs, that can be both ways. So, combination of all these units helps in creation of a full-fledged attendance system. 

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-24.png
Figure 4.1 System Block Diagram

4.2 Attendance Processing Method

In the attendance processing method, initially the RFID card is presented nearby the RFID scanner, then the scanner scans the unique ID presented in the RFID card/tag that evaluates the information about the tag owner. If the scanner accepts the tag then the attendee is marked else the process is repeated from the beginning. When the attendee is accepted, then the timing is marked and a note is left on LED display to notify the attendee about the status. Then the information gets stored in the memory unit of the system, in this case in-built EEPROM, for future usage.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-25.png

Figure 4.2 Attendance Processing Method

5. Project Requirements

5.1 Hardware Requirements

5.1.1 Arduino-Uno

Arduino is an open-source platform used for building electronics projects. Arduino consists of both a physical programmable circuit board (often referred to as a microcontroller) and a piece of software, or IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that runs on your computer, used to write and upload computer code to the physical board. 

The Arduino platform has become quite popular with people just starting out with electronics, and for good reason. Unlike most previous programmable circuit boards, the Arduino does not need a separate piece of hardware (called a programmer) in order to load new code onto the board – you can simply use a USB cable. Finally, Arduino provides a standard form factor that breaks out the functions of the micro-controller into a more accessible package.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-26.png

Figure 5.1.1 Arduino Uno

5.1.2 LCD (20*4)

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) modules are preferred over seven segment and other multi segment LEDs. A 20*4 means it can display 20 characters per line and there are 4 such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5×7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data. 

The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc. The data register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-27.png

Figure 5.1 2 LCD Display (20*4)

5.1.3 RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) use  electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically-stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader’s interrogating radio waves. Active tags have a local power source (such as a battery) and may operate hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method    for       Automatic       Identification and      Data     Capture           (AIDC)

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-28.png

Figure 5.1.3 RFID Set

5.1.4 RTC Module

The  DS3231  is  a  low-cost,  extremely  accurate  I2C real-time  clock  (RTC)  with  an  integrated  temperature-compensated   crystal   oscillator   (TCXO)   and   crystal.   The  device  incorporates  a  battery  input,  and  maintains  accurate  timekeeping when  main  power  to  the  device  is  interrupted. The  RTC  maintains  seconds,  minutes,  hours,  day,  date,  month,  and  year  information.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-29.png
Figure 5.1 4 RTC Module

5.2 Software Requirements

5.2.1 Arduino IDE

The Arduino Integrated Development Environment – or Arduino Software (IDE)contains a text editor for writing code , a message area , a text console , a toolbar with buttons for common functions and a series of menus. It connects to the Arduino and Genuino hardware to upload program, and communicate with them. Arduino is an open source computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures single-board microcontrollers and microcontroller kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the physical world. The project’s products are distributed as open-source hardware and software.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-30.png

Figure 5.2 1 Arduino IDE Interface

6. Limitations and Further Enhancement

6.1. Limitations 

Our system has following limitations:

  1. The system couldn’t be implemented on real time scenario.
  2. Attendance and Time stamp is only recorded, over-time and other calculations is hard. 
  3. The prediction model couldn’t be trained and tested with actual data.
  4. The model can take time to record the ID and detail of attendee at the beginning in the system.
  5. Alerts related to mismatch, under-attendance, etc. are missing.
  6. The designed system has been limited to device and cannot be found with web or mobile applications.

6.2. Further Enhancement

The current system can be enhanced in various aspects which will make the system more efficient, robust and provide better user experience.

  1. The system can be modified for real time implementation.
  2. The system can be extended web and mobile apps.
  3. System performance can be improved by creating a database for storing numerous records using IoT.
  4. The accuracy of prediction model can be improved after implementing our system on real time scenario.

7. Project Cost

S.NComponentsQuantityEstimated Cost
2.Rfid module1Rs.700/-
3.RTC module (DS3231)1Rs.500/-
4.Lcd (20*4)1Rs.600/-

8. Conclusion

The system objectives set during the development of projects are mostly fulfilled and modified during the actual design and analysis of various components and model of the system. The main aim to find systematic, automated attendance and find an appropriate solutions for the users is achieved satisfactorily. 

8.1. Accuracy

We tried showing different tags to the system and operate it on orderly manner. The system showed the following results:

No. of times RFID tag readActual Tag ShownDetected No. of tags in first tryAccuracy (%)
  Average 90.00

                                                Table 7.1: Accuracy Table 

8.2. Consistency

The result of our system is consistent enough during most of time and conditions. As for being fluency in the system, we could easily obtain time count. Hence we are able to achieve a high consistency.


Saroj Basnet                               

Saroj Nepal                               

Sunil Pokhrel           

Sunil Raut                                   

Recommended For You

About the Author: admin

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.