- 2 2. OBJECTIVE AND PROBLEM STATEMENT
- 5 3. LITERATURE REVIEW
- 8 4. METHODOLOGY
- 9 5. PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
- 9.1 5.1 Hardware Requirements
- 9.2 5.2Tools and Technology
- 18 6. RESULT ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION
- 19 7. FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
- 20 8. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS
Automation is one of the increasing needs within industries as well as for domestic applications. Automation reduces the human efforts by replacing the human efforts by system which are self-operated. The Internet is one way of the growing platform automation, through which new advancement are made through which on easily monitor as well control the system using internet. As we are making use of Internet the system becomes secured and live data monitoring is also possible using IoT system.
Within industries the various hazardous gas is being processed, hence to provide security to those employ working within those industries, it becomes important issue to work on their security. If leakage of gas takes place then these system alerts by turning ON alarm which notifies the employers. This system also helps us take some crucial decision from any point of the world within internet network. NodeMCU is being used to act as service point between network and connecting network.
Industrial monitoring and control is a combination of architectures, mechanisms, and algorithms used in the industrial factory for monitoring and control the activities of industrial processes, motors, machines and devices employed in industry premises to achieve the goal. Though it sounds good enough to have a smart industrial environment in the near future but it will also have to face hurdles of handling big data as all the devices will communicate with each other and exchange their information over a common-platform. The present project is focused on Industrial applications that will be continuously monitored through a set of sensors that constitutes a sensor module. The sensor module collects the relevant data to determine whether the applications to be monitored are working well under certain threshold values.
2. OBJECTIVE AND PROBLEM STATEMENT
To use the concept of IOT to make an efficient industrial automation system that allows user to efficiently control and monitor industrial appliances over the internet.
2.2 Problem Statement
To build the system which can monitor the sensor data and upload it over internet and also capable of taking some crucial decision within industries using the IoT.
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
Industrial Automation Using Internet of Things (IOT) . In this paper, they are developing a system which will automatically monitor the industrial applications and generate Alerts/Alarms or take intelligent decisions using concept of IoT.
Internet of Things (IOT) is rapidly increasing technology . In this paper, we are developing a system which will automatically monitor the industrial applications and generate Alerts/Alarms or take intelligent decisions using concept of IOT. Safety from leaking of raw gas and fire are the most important requirements of home and industrial security system for people. A traditional security system gives the signals in terms of alarm.
The Concepts of Internet of Things (IOT) are applied to a number of applications ranging from home automation to industrial IoT , where connecting physical things, from anywhere through a network. Let them take an active part in the Internet, exchanging information about themselves and their surroundings. This will give immediate access to information about the physical world and the objects in it leading to innovative services and increase in efficiency and productivity. The proposal of system is to develop an IOT based Interactive Industrial Home wireless system, Energy management system and embedded data acquisition system to display on web page using GPRS, SMS & E-mail alert. This device is essential for sensor data collection and controlling of the industrial Home Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in the Internet of Things (IOT) environment. It is planned to style a reconfigurable sensible device interface for industrial WSN in IOT atmosphere, during which ARM is adopted as the core controller. Thus, it will scan information in parallel and in real time with high speed on multiple completely different device information. Intelligent device interface specification is adopted for this style.
Internet of things (IOT) encompasses a plethora of connected smart devices and support diverse applications . IOT is likely to be an integral feature of next generation cellular systems. In the manufacturing and supply chain industry, the Industrial IOT (IOT), which consists of sensors, actuators and machinery, is deployed for monitoring, data collection and analysis, asset management, maintenance planning, and plant control and optimization. In this work, we consider the uplink transmission of an IOT system, in which the IOT devices transmit their data to the Base Station (BS) through User Equipment’s (UEs). The BS, in turn, transmits the data to the cloud for further processing. The UEs receive the data from the IOT devices, aggregate with their uplink data, and transmit the aggregated data to the BS. Our investigation shows that the IOT devices require less transmit energy when UEs are used as relays. We study the system when the IOT devices associate themselves with the UEs through the fixed, random, and greedy schemes, and evaluate the end-to-end outage probability at the devices for each of the three schemes.
IoT based industrial automation  In this paper, he planned a framework which will consequently control and screen the mechanical applications and furthermore enabled the client to control the application from anyplace on the planet. Having control over the applications over the internet is one of the best ways to deal with the industrial applications.
Global industrial process monitoring  In this paper, presents the advancement of a modern checking system in view of internet technology.
The system is suitable for real time industrial monitoring. The design is implemented on Atmega board. The client collaborates with the system to send all the commands from various sensors over the internet and shown in the LCD. The outline was tried, actualized and the accuracy and working of the system was verified.
Industrial automation using IoT  In this paper, they are building up a framework which will naturally screen the mechanical applications and produce Alerts/Alarm by using the IoT. By using wireless devices, Android, and sensors IoT is build powerful industrial systems and applications. A main think of this review paper is summaries the uses of IoT in industries with Artificial Intelligence to monitor and control the industry. In this paper five type of sensors used. When the threshold values are raised, it generates the alert message to the Admin.
Industrial IoT systems indeed pose a number of challenges in this paper, they have to interoperate with existing infrastructures and integrate highly heterogeneous hardware-software platforms. They also have to be prepared to scale a few orders of magnitude in size, diameter, and/or density, as well as to enable management by different entities. Moreover, they have to be dependable, that is, reliable, safe, available, maintainable, and secure, all at the same time. What is also important is that this list of requirements is by no means complete.
This system senses three parameters. These are gas, fire, alcohol. In case a fire takes place, the fire sensor would detect the presence of fire and send the status of fire to the NodeMCU through CD4051MUX. The NodeMCU is connected to the, buzzer and NodeMCU is programmed to turn ON the buzzer when flame sensor detects flame greater than a threshold value. This value can be programmed as needed. When the threshold value is reached, the buzzer would be turned ON. As soon as the buzzer is turned ON, the data from the NodeMCU is sent to the Thing speak. Since the data is available LIVE on a website, immediate action can be taken.
Methane gas sensor is used for Methane gas leakage detection. In case there is a leakage of gas, the sensor would detect it and send to the NodeMCU, which would send the status of gas over Thing speak. Since the data is available LIVE on a website, immediate action can be taken. Similarly, alcohol sensor is interfaced with NodeMCU. The alcohol sensor is constantly running to check if employee is drunk. The alcohol sensor can sense the alcohol level and outputs a voltage according to the alcohol sensed. The NodeMCU interfaced to it reads the value and if it is found to be above permissible range it goes into alerting mode. Once it enters alerting mode the NodeMCU stops the servo motor and door is not open. If alcohol sensor sensed the alcohol level below the threshold value and pushbutton is high then door is open for employee to enter inside the factory room. Now the unlucky accident was avoided, the system now needs to send a report to the responsible offices/owner of the industry informing about the incident. Theseinformation’s are automatically sends throughNodeMCU to the Web page forming about the situation so that required action can be taken about it.
Figure 4. 1: Block diagram for purposed system
Figure 4. 2: Flowchart of IoT based industrial automation and monitoring system
5. PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Hardware Requirements
5.1.1 Gas sensor
The MQ-2 Gas sensor can detect or measure gasses like LPG, Alcohol, Propane, Hydrogen, CO and even methane. The module version of this sensor comes with a Digital Pin which makes this sensor to operate even without a microcontroller and that comes in handy when you are only trying to detect one particular gas. When it comes to measuring the gas in ppm the analog pin has to be used, the analog pin also TTL driven and works on 5V and hence can be used with most common microcontrollers.
Figure 5. 1:Gas sensor
Figure 5. 2:MQ2 gas sensor pinouts (Source:
|1||Vcc||This pin powers the module, typically the operating voltage is +5V|
|2||Ground||Used to connect the module to system ground|
|3||Digital Out||You can also use this sensor to get digital output from this pin, by setting a threshold value using the potentiometer|
|4||Analog Out||This pin outputs 0-5V analog voltage based on the intensity of the gas|
|1||H -Pins||Out of the two H pins, one pin is connected to supply and the other to ground|
|2||A-Pins||The A pins and B pins are interchangeable. These pins will be tied to the Supply voltage.|
|3||B-Pins||The A pins and B pins are interchangeable. One pin will act as output while the other will be pulled to ground.|
5.1.2 MUX CD4051
In the large-scale-digital systems, a single line is required to carry on two or more digital signals – and, of course! At a time, one signal can be placed on the one line. But, what is required is a device that will allow us to select; and, the signal we wish to place on a common line, such a circuit is referred to as multiplexer.
The function of a multiplexer is to select the input of any ‘n’ input lines and feed that to one output line. Some multiplexers perform both multiplexing and de-multiplexing operations. The main function of the multiplexer is that it combines input signals, allows data compression, and shares a single transmission channel.
CD4051 is basically an analog and digital multiplexer as well as demultiplexer. It is most commonly known as analog controlled switch. It has low ON impedance and very low OFF leakage current. It dissipates a very low power over full VDD-VSS and VDD-VEE voltage ranges. Eliminating channel overlapping and wide ranges of analog signals are its main feature. It can be used analog to digital as well as digital to analog converters and analog & digital multiplexing. CD-4051 is shown in the figure below:
Figure 5. 3 : MUX CD4051
- CD4051 pins
- CD 4051 has sixteen pins, some of them act as input and some as output.
- All of the pins are listed in the table shown below
|Pin number||Pin name|
Table 5. 1: CD4051 pins
2) CD4051 pins function
- Each pin has different individual function associated with it.
- The functions followed by each of the pin are given in the table shown in the figure below.
|I/O 4||Channel 4 I/O|
|I/O 6||Channel 6 I/O|
|I/O 7||Channel 7 I/O|
|I/O 5||Channel 5 I/O|
|Inhibit||Disable all channels|
|VEE||Negative power input|
|Input C||Channel select C|
|Input B||Channel select B|
|Input A||Channel select A|
|I/O 3||Channel 3 I/O|
|I/O 0||Channel 0 I/O|
|I/O 1||Channel 1 I/O|
|I/O 2||Channel 2 I/O|
|VDD||Positive power input|
Table 5. 2:CD4051 pins functions
5.1.3 Flame sensor
A flame detector is a sensor designed to detect and respond to the presence of a flame or fire allowing flame detection. Responses to a detected flame depend on the installation, but can include sounding an alarm, deactivating a fuel line (such as a propane or a natural gas line), and activating a fire suppression system. When used in applications such as industrial furnaces, their role is to provide confirmation that the furnace is working properly; in these cases they take no direct action beyond notifying the operator or control system. A flame detector can often respond faster and more accurately than a smoke or heat detector due to the mechanisms it uses to detect the flame.
Figure 5. 4 : Flame sensor
5.1.4 Alcohol sensor
This module is made using Alcohol Gas Sensor MQ3. It is a low-cost semiconductor sensor which can detect the presence of alcohol gases at concentrations from 0.05 mg/L to 10 mg/L. The sensitive material used for this sensor is SnO2, whose conductivity is lower in clean air. Its conductivity increases as the concentration of alcohol gases increases. It has high sensitivity to alcohol and has a good resistance to disturbances due to smoke, vapor and gasoline. This module provides both digital and analog outputs. MQ3 alcohol sensor module can be easily interfaced with Microcontrollers, Arduino Boards, and Raspberry Pi etc.
Figure 5. 5 : Alcohol sensor
- VCC – Input Power Supply
- GND – Supply Ground
- DO – Digital Output
- AO – Analog Output
The ESP8266 is a Wi-Fi SoC integrated with a TensilicaXtensa LX106 core, widely used in IoT applications. ESP8266-Based Serial Wi-Fi Shield for Arduino is designed and developed by Shenzhen Doctors of Intelligence & Technology. The shield is designed on ESP8266 by Espressif Systems, pin-compatible with Arduino UNO Dev Board.
The serial Wi-Fi shield has the following features:
1.Wi-Fi module is industrial-grade chips ESP8266, which is ESP-12E with shield, strong anti-interference ability.
2.Shield is pin-compatible with Arduino Uno, Mega2560 and other control board. A voltage converter chip is used to deal with Arduino 3.3V and 5V.
3.Dual DIP switches is used for serial ports so that this module shield can be used alone as an Arduino UNO expansion board, and also be used as ESP8266 expansion board.
4.Serial data is transported to Wi-Fi device transparently, and vice-versa. Arduino program does not need any configuration.
5.WebServer is developed to configure Wi-Fi parameters and serial port parameters.
6.The module shield can be used as an independent ESP8266 development board. for instance, downloading the official AT commands firmware, NodeMCU open source firmware can be used.
7.The module shield also can be used as stand-alone expansion board for Arduino UNO.
Figure 5. 6 : NodeMCU
A push button is a momentary or non-latching switch which causes a temporary change in the state of an electrical circuit only while the switch is physically actuated. An automatic mechanism (i.e. a spring) returns the switch to its default position immediately afterwards, restoring the initial circuit condition. There are two types:
- A push to make switch allows electricity to flow between its two contacts when held in. When the button is released, the circuit is broken. This type of switch is also known as a Normally Open (NO) Switch. (Examples: doorbell, computer case power switch, calculator buttons, individual keys on a keyboard)
- A push to break switch does the opposite, i.e. when the button is not pressed, electricity can flow, but when it is pressed the circuit is broken. This type of switch is also known as a Normally Closed (NC) Switch. (Examples: Fridge Light Switch, Alarm Switches in Fail-Safe circuits)
Figure 5. 7 : Pushbutton
5.1.6 Servo motor
The servo motor is most commonly used for high technology devices in the industrial application like automation technology. It is a self-contained electrical device, that rotate parts of a machine with high efficiency and great precision. The output shaft of this motor can be moved to a particular angle. Servo motors are mainly used in home electronics, toys, cars, airplanes etc.
Figure 5. 8 : Servo motor
A unique design for servo motors is proposed in controlling the robotics and for control applications. They are basically used to adjust the speed control at high torques and accurate positioning. Parts required are motor position sensor and a highly developed controller. These motors can be categorized according the servo motor controlled by servomechanism.
5.1.7 Jumper wires
Jumper wires are simply wiring that have connector pins at each end, allowing them to be used to connect two points to each other without soldering. Jumper wires are typically used with breadboards and other prototyping tools in order to make it easy to change a circuit as needed.
Jumper wires typically come in three versions: male-to-male, male-to-female and female-to-female. The difference between each is in the end point of the wire. Male ends have a pin protruding and can plug into things, while female ends do not and are used to plug things into. Male-to-male jumper wires are the most common and what you likely will use most often. When connecting two ports on a breadboard, a male-to-male wire is what you’ll need.
Figure 5. 9 : Jumper wires
A buzzer is device which makes beeping noise. There are several kinds of buzzer, the most basic is a piezoelectric buzzer, which is just a flat piece of piezoelectric material with two electrodes. This type of buzzer requires some kind of oscillator to drive it. When you supply DC voltage to buzzer it produces beep sound.
Figure 5. 10 : Buzzer
5.2Tools and Technology
5.2.1 Arduino IDE
- Arduino IDE is an open source software that is mainly used for writing and compiling the code into the Arduino Module.
- It is an official Arduino software, making code compilation too easy that even a common person with no prior technical knowledge can get their feet wet with the learning process.
- It is easily available for operating systems like MAC, Windows, Linux and runs on the Java Platform that comes with inbuilt functions and commands that play a vital role for debugging, editing and compiling the code in the environment.
- A range of Arduino modules available including Arduino Uno, Arduino Mega, Arduino Leonardo, Arduino Micro and many more.
- Each of them contains a microcontroller on the board that is actually programmed and accepts the information in the form of code.
- The main code, also known as a sketch, created on the IDE platform will ultimately generate a Hex File which is then transferred and uploaded in the controller on the board.
- The IDE environment mainly contains two basic parts: Editor and Compiler where former is used for writing the required code and later is used for compiling and uploading the code into the given Arduino Module.
- This environment supports both C and C++ languages.
Python is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. It’s high-level built in data structures, combined with dynamic typing and dynamic binding; make it very attractive for Rapid Application Development, as well as for use as a scripting of glue language to connect existing components together. Python’s simple, easy to learn syntax emphasizes readability and therefore reduces the cost of program maintenance. Python supports modules and packages, which encourages program modularity and code reuse. The Python interpreter and the extensive standard library are available in source or binary form without charge for all major platforms and can be freely distributed.
Python can be used to do following
- Python can use in server to create Web application.
- Python can connect to database systemic can also read and modify file.
- Python can used to handle big data and perform to complex mathematics.
- Python can use to rapid prototyping, for production ready-software development.
HTML is the standard markup language for creating Web page.it is not a programming language.
- HTML stand for Hyper Text Markup Language.
- HTML describe the structure of Web page.
- HTML elements tell browser how to display the content.
- HTML elements are represented by tags.
CSS is the Cascading Style Sheet is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in HTML.CSS describes how the elements should be rendered on screen.
CSS is one the core languages of the open Web and is standardized across Web browsers according to the W3C specification.
ThingSpeak is an IoT analytic platform service that allows you to aggregate, visualize and analyze live stream data in the cloud. ThingSpeak provides instant visualizations of data posted your devices to ThingSpeak. With the ability to execute MATLAB code in ThingSpeak you can perform online analysis and processing of the data as it comes in. ThingSpeak is often used for prototyping and proof of concept IoT systems that requires analytic.
6. RESULT ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION
6.1 Result Analysis
The system is operated through wireless system using the concept of IOT. The status of sensors of particular industry can be obtained individually. Received data from individual sensors are update on server ThingSpeak through NodeMCU.
Figure 6. 1: alcohol sensor status
Figure 6. 2: status of gas and fire sensor
In the present Scenario, there are so many accidental activities happened in industrial areas. Some of them are due to the human negligence and also occurs due to Pollutions from the industrial areas.
This project “The IoT based industrial monitoring and automation system” is able to detecting the leakage of gas and fire and update the status from the sensors to the operating server. Which can access globally from everywhere so the accidental activities are control in proper way. Also, we able to protect our industry from drunken human accidental problem by using the alcohol sensor. We used alcohol sensor on main entry gate inside where all of the production has been taking out. At that case when the worker person tries to enter inside the room, at first, he/she needs to press the push button. On same time alcohol sensor which is side by the push button measures the alcohol status. If the sensor detect alcohol, the door will not open otherwise it open.
All of these sensed statuses from different sensor are monitor from control room. If any unnecessary case arises, it is easier to take an action upon that problems. Therefore, this project is one of the best ways to control and monitor industrial appliances.
7. FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
There is a great opportunity to enhance this project in upcoming future. This system is monitoring only three parameters and hence can be expanded by considering more parameters that cause the pollution especially by the industries. This system gives availability of viewing the sensor outputs through internet. It can be made to control the emissions by giving commands from distance. Many pollutants do not have sensors that sense them if available they expensive and hence building sensor for different parameters might be a future and challenging task.
8. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS
- All the devices will be connected to a single cloud network, allowing the employs to monitor the production work happening in each department.
- The IoT manufactures will develop more advanced technologies which will optimizes the workflow in any working ecosystem.
- Improve the overall worker safety and security in the plant.
- Use of IoT sensor in manufacturing equipment enables condition base maintenance alerts
- Industries and offices: monitoring and controlling the machines and instruments using the IoT technique
- Home applications: we can monitor and control the home things like fans, TV, fridge etc. using IoT technique
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